ETGAR A. ENGINEERING
The Soil, Rock and Water Experts
Hydrology & Hydrogeology
Our expertise in hydrology and hydrogeology includes research, preliminary surveys, project guidance and implementation, follow-up and monitoring. We have experience with projects ranging in scale from small to country-wide. Our team provides a range of services in-line with the operational demands of the project.
Our expertise includes:
Support in managing and operating water sources.
Analysis of existing hydrological data, database construction and long term data monitoring.
Planning monitoring and surveillance systems.
Hydrogeological mapping and analysis of flow regimes.
Planning and interpreting geophysical surveys.
Obtaining permits and advancing projects through governmental agencies.
Rehabilitation of aquifers from contamination and salt water intrusion.
Developing hydrological numerical models.
Planning and scheduling future pumping regimes.
Feasibility studies for increasing the scope of pumping.
Hydrological and hydrogeological surveys.
Surface and groundwater sampling.
Data collection and analysis.
Drainage system and runoff channeling.
Examples of Projects
Sub-aquifer mapping and borehole classification
As part of this project, data from thousands of drilling wells and observation boreholes were analyzed and classified into different sub-aquifers of the of the Israeli coastal Pleistocene aquifer. Geological and hydrogeolgical data were analyzed using professional software including Geographical Information System (GIS).
This project was of particular importance given the increasing need for proper management of the aquifer. The coastal aquifer is one of the main natural freshwater sources in Israel and suffers from seawater intrusions, pollution and the effects of overproduction.
Numerical model of the flow systems in the Negev and Arava
For this project our team updated the regional aquifer model in southern Israel, which includes three different interlinked aquifer systems. Data analysis included integrating the various fault systems, their effect on groundwater mobility, and updating the aquifers recharge functions to non-linear equations. This updated model is now used by the Hydrological Survey of Israel (HIS) in order to conduct feasibility tests for additional production in the Arava valley in southern Israel.
Dan Region Wastewater Treatment Plant (DRWTP) - feasibility study for an underground reservoir
This project involved conducting a feasibility study and doing the general planning for an underground reservoir for industrially treated water from the DRWTP in the Nir Am-Mefalsim area, in the southern coast of Israel. The benefit of using an underground reservoir is that it limits evaporation, therefore reducing water loss and salinity increase.
For this project we developed a three-dimensional numerical model, in which we simulated water flow and chemical transport through variably saturated porous media. The model structure and guidelines were based on our preliminary recharge wells and observation borehole system design. The project included modeling and computation of flow and transport in order to develop a seasonal reservoir while testing long term infiltration and production over a time span of decades.
After conducting a cost benefit analysis, the proposed reservoir was found to be preferable to an open retention basin. The project summary included an outline of recommendations for implementing the design for an experimental recharge well-field. The design included drilling new boreholes, conducting pumping and recharge tests, and hydrological and chemical analyses.
Updating the Israel coastal plain aquifer conceptual model
The coastal aquifer is one of Israel's main natural freshwater sources. Knowledge of geological units that comprise this aquifer is based on a database that had not been updated since the 1970's. Since then, many new drilling projects in the area have shed light on the local geology. However, all the information acquired from these projects had not been systematically organized and the database had not been updated in a fashion that depicted the aquifer's structure.
Updating the geological information was especially important in the vicinity of the coastline, where the aquifer is not continuous and appears as sub-units that are divided by impermeable and semi-permeable units. For this project we used a 3D computer program in order to integrate existing data with new information and compose a conceptual regional model for the Hydrological Survey of Israel (HIS).